HomeHealth‘Ulysses’: The Ebook That By no means Stops Altering

‘Ulysses’: The Ebook That By no means Stops Altering


When I used to be a child, the axis round which Dublin revolved was an enormous Doric column that had stood on the middle of the town since 1809. On the highest was a statue of the English naval hero Vice Admiral Horatio Lord Nelson. Even to a baby, his presence appeared anomalous. It was as if Washington, D.C., have been dominated by a large memorial to King George III.

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In the future, after I was 8 years outdated, my father and his cousin Vincent led me and my brother up the 168 steps that wound by the hole inside of the monument we Dubliners known as Nelson’s Pillar. I had by no means earlier than seen the town from a vantage level so excessive that you could possibly absorb the entire place, the bay to the outlying mountains.

However there was, for me, an fringe of unease. Vincent had purchased half a dozen plums in a fruit store. Once we bought to the highest of the pillar, he opened the brown paper bag and gave us every one. He and my father began laughing about how they may spit the stones down on the folks beneath. I discovered this deeply unsettling as a result of I didn’t know my father could possibly be like that, that he may joke about one thing I used to be positive would get us into huge hassle. It was additionally darkly mysterious. The adults clearly thought there was some that means in all of this—however what did plums need to do with Nelson?

Greater than a decade later, I came upon. I used to be studying, for the primary time, James Joyce’s Ulysses. The centenary of the novel’s publication is being marked in Dublin with official enthusiasm climaxing on Bloomsday, June 16. However again then it was nonetheless—appropriately—a thrillingly unusual and soiled guide, filled with provocations and subversions. I got here to an episode wherein the creator’s alter ego, Stephen Dedalus, is passing Nelson’s Pillar with another males. He tries to impress them with a narrative about two middle-aged Dublin ladies who save their cash for a time out. They purchase plenty of plums and climb the pillar. Then “they put the bag of plums between them and eat the plums out of it, one after one other, wiping off with their handkerchiefs the plumjuice that dribbles out of their mouths and spitting the plumstones slowly out between the railings.”

Studying this took me again to my childhood and defined an incident that was each vivid in my reminiscence and oddly obscure. Now I knew what my father and Vincent have been joking about and why we have been consuming plums manner up there above the streets of Dublin. The guide was of their heads, and so they have been inhabiting concurrently Joyce’s comedian parable and the present-day metropolis. But when the passage in Ulysses illuminated a second in my very own previous, I nonetheless couldn’t perceive Stephen Dedalus’s story. Why have been these apparently respectable ladies spitting the onerous pits of a fruit down onto the heads of their fellow residents?

What I needed to do then was return and climb the pillar once more. Certainly one of the best ways to understand what the ladies have been doing was to retrace their steadily mounting steps. This was the nice privilege of studying Ulysses as a local of the town it has immortalized: The fictional world of the guide mapped onto the bodily actuality of the streets and buildings, so that every may radiate into the opposite.

Besides that, by the point I used to be studying Joyce, the pillar had vanished. In 1966, not lengthy after our household journey with the plums, some members of an Irish Republican Military splinter group had planted a bomb underneath Nelson’s statue that blew it off its plinth and shattered the highest a part of the column. The unhappy stump was then demolished by the authorities.

The bombers very intentionally erased one sort of reminiscence—the concept of Dublin as a British metropolis, visually dominated by a really English hero. However additionally they obliterated an vital a part of Joyce’s metropolis.

In Ulysses, the pillar is described because the “coronary heart of the Hibernian metropolis.” That coronary heart was ripped out. From that second, a really particular expertise grew to become unimaginable—a visible and spatial sensation of hauling your bones up by the darkish inside of an enormous stone tube, rising into the sunshine after which seeing the town and its hinterland in each route. Joyce undoubtedly did that, and the topography imprinted itself on his creativeness. I had been fortunate sufficient to do it as soon as, however I used to be painfully conscious that nobody may ever do it once more.

Solely a lot later, studying Ulysses for a second time, did I understand that within the guide itself there may be additionally an absent monument. If Dublin, you may be accustomed to the obelisk only a few hundred yards up O’Connell Avenue from the place Nelson’s Pillar had stood. It commemorates a way more appropriately Irish hero: Charles Stewart Parnell, who drove the reason for Irish Dwelling Rule to the very middle of British politics within the Eighties. The statue of Parnell is the one monument by the nice sculptor Augustus Saint-Gaudens within the artist’s native metropolis. For Joyce, it could have had a particular significance—on the age of 9, he wrote a poem in reward of Parnell, his first printed work; his proud father had it printed up as a broadside. The autumn of the chief of Irish nationalism within the late Nineteenth century, introduced down by a scandal over his adulterous liaison with a married girl, was for him probably the most embittering occasion in current Irish historical past. “ ’Twas Irish humour, moist and dry,” Joyce wrote later, “Flung quicklime into Parnell’s eye.”

The inspiration stone for Parnell’s monument was laid in 1899, however by 1904, when Ulysses is ready, it had nonetheless not been constructed. Joyce noticed this failure as emblematic of what he known as the paralysis of Irish life. In a lecture in 1907, he famous sardonically that “in logical and critical international locations, it’s customary to complete the monument in a good method … however in Eire, a rustic destined by God to be the everlasting caricature of the intense world … they not often get past the laying of the inspiration stone.”

In Ulysses, on the morning of June 16, 1904, because the protagonist Leopold Bloom is using in a carriage to Glasnevin Cemetery for the burial of the hard-drinking Paddy Dignam, he passes an empty plinth on the high of O’Connell Avenue. His silent thought is: “Basis stone for Parnell. Breakdown. Coronary heart.” That is the opposite coronary heart of the Hibernian metropolis, the damaged one. It marks a spot so sunk in lassitude that it can not even honor its misplaced chief.

The bitter irony is that Nelson, too, had an affair with a married girl. Stephen Dedalus calls him the “onehandled adulterer.” (Nelson had misplaced his proper arm in battle.) Nelson’s sexual transgression doesn’t stop him from being immortalized in Dublin—whereas Parnell’s related sin nonetheless clouds his reminiscence. As a result of Parnell has not been correctly memorialized, it’s, in Ulysses, as if he has not been laid to relaxation in any respect. He’s the unquiet ghost that haunts the guide.

When Bloom is within the cemetery, considered one of his companions factors to Parnell’s tomb: “With awe Mr Energy’s clean voice spoke:—Some say he’s not in that grave in any respect. That the coffin was stuffed with stones. That sooner or later he’ll come once more.” This notion is made all of the extra actual as a result of at numerous factors through the day, we encounter Parnell’s residing doppelgänger, his brother John Howard Parnell. (“There he’s: the brother. Picture of him. Haunting face.”)

Joyce embeds in Ulysses a posh set of ideas and emotions about these two monuments—what’s there and never there, what’s imposed on Eire as official British reminiscence and what has but to be correctly remembered in any respect. And all of this had grow to be combined up for me with my very own reminiscences of my household and my hometown. Nelson’s now nonexistent pillar, that paradoxical monument to oblivion, was, for me, a picture of each the evanescence of the previous and the best way that odd elements of it linger and persist—a picture, too, that had an attractive coloration and a pointy style: plum.

I nonetheless didn’t know, nevertheless, what Stephen Dedalus’s parable was about. Within the weird however very Joycean logic of affiliation that makes Ulysses such a continually altering guide, the that means got here to me from an apparently unrelated supply. The chapter wherein the parable is advised is basically about rhetoric, and the dialog that precedes it remembers a speech by a Nineteenth-century Dublin lawyer that alludes to Moses main the Jews out of Egypt. Whereas I used to be rereading the part, I additionally learn Martin Luther King Jr.’s staggering closing oration, on the eve of his assassination, in Memphis: “I’ve been to the mountaintop … And I’ve regarded over. And I’ve seen the promised land. I could not get there with you.” King transforms himself into Moses, who will get to see Israel from the highest of a mountain however on the similar time is advised by God that he himself won’t reside to enter it.

If I had learn my Bible, which I had not, I’d have recognized that the identify of the mountain is Pisgah. In Ulysses, Stephen calls his odd story “A Pisgah Sight of Palestine or the Parable of the Plums.” If I’d had one of many many annotated editions of the novel which have since appeared, or if the web had been invented, I’d have understood the allusion. However I believed that Pisgah was only a Joycean invention—it does, in my protection, sound like a believable vulgar expression of disgust that may have been present in 1904.

Stephen’s acrid joke is that the Moses who was supposed to guide Eire to its promised land—Parnell—is unremembered; in the meantime, regardless of the expansive view, no Irish future could be seen from the highest of the very British monument to Nelson. The ladies who take such hassle to climb it won’t even be granted a sight of a brand new Eire, not to mention get to reside in it. And why plums? Perhaps simply because they’ve the bittersweet tang of reminiscence.


This text seems within the July/August 2022 print version with the headline “The Ebook That By no means Stops Altering.”

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